29 Mayıs 2015 Cuma

1032 Final Revision ANSWERS


YTÜ
2014- 2015 SPRING SEMESTER
 1032 ADVANCED ENGLISH 2
FINAL REVISION TEACHERS’ COPY
A.VOCABULARY: Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the box. Two words are extra.
abolition
candid
assaults
minority
moderate (extra)
accused
tissue (extra)
disguise
prohibited
raid
confined
discourage
retrieve
incarcerated
leaked to
retribution
probation
 
 
 
 
1. The abolition of unfair taxes is necessary because nobody should be forced to pay taxes above their income level. It is definitely unjust.
 
2. The ex-minister gave a candidinterview about his reasons for resigning. He told the interviewer all the reasons about why he was resigning in a truthful way.
 
3. It is cruel to keep animals in confinedspaces. They should be out in the open where they can move and run freely.
 
4. They carried out a bombing raid on enemy bases. 6 enemy soldiers were dead as a result of this.
 
5. The school carried out a campaign to discouragesmoking among teenagers. Fortunately, it was a big success and smoking was reduced in the school campus.
 
6. The school is 40 percent minority. In other words, 40 per cent of children are not white but they are from different groups.
 
7. He decided he would disguisehimself as a doctor and get into the hospital unnoticed. He wanted  to deceive the hospital security by hiding his true identity.
 
8. The secret report and documents were leaked to the media by the agents. Soon they were all on the cover of the newspapers.
 
9. The man was accused of theft and all the evidence presented at the court were against him. As a result, he was found guilty and arrested.
 
10. The robbers fled because they feared retribution for the theft, but they couldn’t go very far because the police car was following them.
 
11. She was to be incarcerated in a cell by herself. Such a form of imprisonment would be harsh for her, but she is said to deserve it.
 
12. A series of racialist assaultshave taken place over the past year against the minority group. These attacks are called hate crimes because they involve ethnic rage.
 
13. She has been put on probationafter six months in prison. Now she will be under supervision doing community service.
 
14. She had dropped one of her earrings on the floor, so she bent down to retrieve it from the floor.
 
15. Soviet citizens were prohibited from travelling abroad by the Russian government. Because of this prevention to travel abroad, Russia became self-isolated.
 
 
 
 
 
 
B.READING: THE CUTE CAT THEORY OF CLICKTIVISM
 
Is social media just for sharing cute cat photos or is it a place for activism? According to Harvard University researcher Ethan Zuckerman’s Cute Cat Theory (2008), the Internet was invented for scientists to share their research papers, while social media was invented for people to share cute photos of cats. However, both the Internet and social media are now used for millions of other things. One of the current uses of social media is online activism, also known as clicktivism. Every day, thousands of photos and videos are shared asking people to “like” or “share” a cause. Despite the popularity of this method, it is often criticized by traditional activists for being a lazy type of activism.
But is it really so? Does clicktivism have no value at all? In the year 2008, Zuckerman introduced a model to evaluate efforts of activism. The model is based on two vectors to define these efforts:
The vertical axis moves from thin to thick participation. Thin participation means raising people’s awareness with minimal or no effort. For example, liking a cause on Facebook or re-tweeting a charity’s message with one single click are examples of thin activities.
Thick participation, on the other hand, requires people to make an effort. An example of this would be contributing to a cause with ideas or creativity. Other than the vertical axis of thin / thick participation, there is the horizontal axis of symbolic to impactful action. This axis describes levels of change. Symbolic activities do not bring any change, whereas impactful activities include a mechanism for creating real change.
The four quadrants in the model explain the qualities of different types of activism. Let us start in the upper left quadrant: thin and symbolic acts. Here, acting is effortless and does not create change. Internet activism, such as signing an online petition, falls in this category. Secondly, there is the upper right quadrant with thin but impactful activities. This refers to simple, effortless acts with a meaningful effect, such as voting. Voting is thin (i.e. easy to participate in) because every citizen in democratic countries can do it easily, and it is also impactful as election results may lead to change. Thirdly, the bottom left quadrant includes symbolic but thick activity. These are real activities that take time and energy, but are still symbolic. For example, people who participate in the “Occupy Movement” physically go to a place to occupy it, but their act is symbolic because the emphasis is on raising awareness, not creating change. This brings us to the final quadrant: thick and impactful activity. This kind of activism requires people to make an effort and also work for real change. For example, activists who go to a disaster area to protest the late response of a government to a natural disaster display thick participation because they are making a real effort. If these peoplealso establish their own system to help the survivors, they also display impactful action because they create real change.
Many people argue that the best type of activism is thick and impactful as there is a big difference between raising awareness about an issue and creating change. On the other hand, online activism generally fails to be thick and impactful. So what does this mean for clicktivism? Is it useless? Should social media sites be limited to photos of cute cats only? Definitely not. There is no harm in signing that online petition, but remember that a click should be your first step, not last.
Taken from “Refresh-Academic English for the 21st Century” by Aylin Graves.
 
1. Why did Ethan Zuckerman call his theory the Cute Cat Theory?
a. because thousands of photos and videos are shared asking people to “like” or “share” a cause
b. because most people like photos of cute cats
c. because clicktivism is a lazy type of activism
d. because the social media was initially invented to share photos of cute cats
 
2. According to paragraph 1, what is main the difference between the social media and the internet?
a. Social media was invented for online activism while the internet was invented for sharing research papers.
b. The Internet was created so that people could share pictures, social media was invented so that people could share news.
c. The Internet was created so that scientists could share their research papers while social media was created so that people could share cute photos of cats.
d. On social media you can be an online activist but on the internet you can share research papers.
 
3. Why do traditional activists criticize clicktivism according to the last paragraph?
a. They think it is not impactful.
b. They think it is not meaningful.
c. They don’t think it raises awareness.
d. They think it is useless.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Read paragraph 3 and complete the chart by writing the characteristics of each quadrant:
                                   
           Minimal effort                        thin   effortless acts,
           No change                                        real effect (voting)
(likes, retweets)
 
            symbolic                                                     impactful
real activity                                                               
not much change
(occupy movements)                                     maximum effort
real change
                    thick         (going to disaster areas)
 
                                               
5. Below are some examples of activism. Which quadrant would you place them in? Why?


٭      A. Liking a blue ribbon on Facebook to support free speech online. (answer: thin and symbolic participation, upper left quadrant)
 
٭      B. Making a video to criticize a political view and sharing it with your contacts on social media.  (answer: thin and impactful, effortless, real effect, upper right quadrant)


 

6. What does the word “awareness” in line 11 mean?

a.    criticism     b. participation             c. evaluation               d. understanding

 

7. What does the word “these people” in paragraph 4 mean?

a. people who make a minimal effort

b. people who display symbolic participation

c. activists who go to a disaster area to protest the late response of a government

d. people who display thin participation and make some effort

 

8. In the last paragraph, what does the writer mean by saying “a click should be your first step not last.”

a. You can be a clicktivist but you should follow that with more impactful activism.

b. Your activism should be limited to clicktivism.

c. You should try hard to be an activist.

d. You should sign more online petitions.

 

C. Fill in the blanks with the suitable linking words. There is one extra.

 

on the contrary
additionally
along with (extra)
in addition to
also
however
moreover, what is more, furthermore, besides
for example
 
not only … but also
to sum up
as well
then

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Cell Phone

Until the 1800s people used letters for communication. But this way was very slow and people couldn’t contact with each other in emergency situations. There was (1) alsothe possibility of letters being lost. But after the invention of telephone in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, it became easier for people to communicate. (2) Then in the 1970s, the cellular phone was invented. It brought many advantages into our lives. (3)However, although cell phones brought many benefits into our lives, they have many disadvantages (4) as well. The most important advantage of cell phones is that they can be used almost everywhere without cables or electricity. By using a mobile phone you can communicate with anyone whenever you want and wherever you are. (5) In addition to this, if there is an emergency situation, mobile phones can be useful. (6) Moreover / What is more / Furthermore / Besides, you can get access to the Internet by using a cell phone. These days, the world’s most common means of communication is SMS. Cell phones include this system, so in this way you can communicate with someone more cheaply than normal calling. (7) On the contrary, cell phones have some disadvantages. (8)For example, cell phones spread electromagnetic waves. And these electromagnetic waves cause important health problems like cancer. (9) Additionally,cell phones often affect the electronic systems used by equipment like cars, ABS (automatic break system), and computers. This can cause big problems, such as accidents. (10) To sum up, cell phones (11) not only have advantages, but also they have disadvantages. Mobile phones make our lives easier. But at the same time, they cause some important problems in our health.

Adapted from “Let’s Write- From Word to Paragraph” Ali Işık.

 

 

 

 

 

D. Fill in the blanks with the suitable linking words. Two words are extra.

for instance
although
while
in spite of (extra)
in conclusion
meanwhile (extra)
first
on the other hand

 

The concept of hacking was born at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1960s. There were two kinds of students at MIT in those days: tools and hackers. (1) First, a “tool” was a student who attended classes regularly, visited the library to study and made a lot of effort to get good grades. A “hacker”, (2) on the other hand, was the opposite: a student who never went to class, who slept the whole day and spent the whole night involved in science fiction or radios.

Today, a “computer hacker” is someone who knows all about computers and can make a computer do anything for them. (3) Although most people criticize computer hacking for being a harmful act, can there be a positive side to it as well?

This question requires a look at a group of people called hacktivists. They use the same methods as hackers to break into other people’s computer systems. The difference is that hacktivism places emphasis on a political or social purpose. (4) For instance, they leave a political message or stop the traffic to a website to raise people’s awareness of a problem.

(5) In conclusion, is hacktivism a crime? The answer is a question mark. For some, it causes damage and has a negative effect (6) while others insist that it is a harmless form of protest and free speech.

Adapted from   “Refresh-Academic English for the 21st Century” by Aylin Graves.

 

E. Answer the following questions fully by using around 60 words.

1. What is identity theft? Explain by referring to the text “Technology and Crime”.

People store many data such as their birth dates, national identity numbers, etc. on their computers and they transmit information like passwords, credit card and bank account numbers over the internet. Criminals steal this personal information by breaking into or hacking into computer systems. This is called identity theft. They use the personal information to steal money from people’s accounts. They may open new bank accounts, take loans and even buy new houses in the other person’s name. For example Albert Gonzales stole over 130 million credit and bank account numbers and withdrew millions dollars and bought very expensive things with this money.

 

2. What are the common features of social media sites? Explain by referring to the text “Social Media”?

They have several common features such as using an internet-based technology, being interactive, being accessible at little or no cost to anyone with a computer and an internet connection, delivering information quickly, being available anytime. It has spread very quickly and its users are increasing day by day. Furthermore, social media sites have replaced some of the functions of traditional media. They allow people to build a community of friends and interact online.

 

 

 

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