20 Eylül 2013 Cuma

Okuma-Konuşma Destek Materyali


Giving Opinions

I think, I feel, I reckon (informal)
I guess (American)
In my view, in my opinion, to my mind, for me (formal)
If you ask me,…..
Apparently, so to speak, more or less, sort of (informal)
Kind of (informal)
Well, really, that is to say, at least, I am afraid, I suppose, or rather, actually, I mean

Giving a strong opinion
“I am absolutely convinced that…….”
“I am sure that…….”
“I strongly believe that…….”
“I have no doubt that………”
“To my way of thinking,…….”

Focusing and Linking
With reference to
Talking / speaking of / about
As regards
As far as………is concerned
As for………….

Agreeing and Disagreeing
I agree
That’s exactly what I think
That’s a good point
That’s right
Yeah, I know
I take your point, but….
I see what you mean, but….
I agree up to a point, but….
I agree to some extent, but…
I disagree
I don’t agree at all
Sorry, but that’s not my opinion
I don’t feel the same way
I wouldn’t say that
I don’t think so
No way!
Oh, come on!

Checking understanding of the question

Do you mean…?
Sorry, I didn’t catch the last word of the question.
Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on .
Let me just make sure - your point is that .
Should I talk about Japan, or the country that I come from?

Pausing for thought

Let me think.
Let me see.
That’s a difficult question.
I’ve never really thought about that before.

Sounding unsure

I don’t remember very well, but…
The first thing that comes to mind is…
I don’t know a lot about this, but I guess…
I’m no expert on this, but I would imagine…

Comparing Photos
The most obvious similarity is that both photos show …
You can see … in both photos.
The … in photo 1 is/are … . Similarly, the … in photo 2 is/are …
The … is the same in both photos.
In the first photo ... but in the second one ...
This picture ... while on the other hand this one ...
In comparison to the first photo, this one ...
The biggest difference between the photos is that photo 1 shows … whereas photo 2 shows …
While photo 1 shows ..., photo 2 on the other hand …
The … is completely different in the two photos.

Classifying / categorising


There are
of X
: Y and Z.
. These are Y and Z.
are Y and Z.

consists of
can be divided into
. These are Y and Z.
: Y and Z.

Y and Z are
of X.

We can classify X
according to
on the basis of
depending on






X is like Y
X and Y are similar
X is similar to Y
X is the same as Y
X resembles Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in that W is the same.
in terms of W.
in W.

Both X and Y cost W.
X is as expensive as W.
X costs the same as Y.
X is the same price as Y.

X has a Y.
Similarly, it has a W.
Likewise, it has a W.
Correspondingly, it has a W.
It has a W, too.
It also has a W.




X differs from Y
X is unlike Y
X and Y differ
X is different from Y
X contrasts with Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in terms of W.
in W.

X costs 1,174, whereas Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, while Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, but Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, in contrast to Y, which costs W.
X is more expensive than Y.
X is not as expensive as Y.
X costs more than Y.

X is expensive to buy.
On the other hand, it is W.
In contrast, it is W.
Conversely, it is W.
However, it is W.

Although X is expensive to buy,
Despite the high price of X,
it is W.









X is ....
X is called ....
X is known as ....
X may be defined as ....
X is a type of Y that/which ....
A type of Y which ... is X.
We call ... ....
We define ... ....


Emphasising a point


I want to stress ....
I want to highlight ....
I'd like to emphasise ....
I'd like to put emphasis on ....
It's important to remember that ....
We should bear in mind that ....
Don't forget that ....
The crucial point is ....
The essential point is ....
The fundamental point is ....
Furthermore, ....
What's more, ....
This supports my argument that, ....
It follows, therefore, that ....
What (in effect) we are saying is ....



Referring to research


If you agree with what the writer says.
If you disagree with what the writer says.
If you do not want to give your opinion about what the writer says.

The work of X indicates that ...
The work of X reveals that ...
The work of X shows that ...
 Turning to X, one finds that ... Reference to X reveals that ...
In a study of Y, X found that...
As X points out, ...
As X has indicated ...
A study by X shows that ...
X has drawn attention to the fact that ...
X argues that ...
X points out that ...
X makes clear that ...

          X claims that ...
          The work of X asserts that ...
          X feels that ...

According to X...
It is the view of X that ...
The opinion of X is that ...
In an article by X, ...
Research by X suggests that ...
X has expressed a similar view.
X reports that ...
X notes that ...
X states that ...
X observes that ...
X concludes that ...
X argues that ...
X found that ...
X discovered that ...






In other words,
Or rather,
That is to say,
To put it another way,
If we put that another way,
I mean
By which I mean
Or you could say
The point I'm making is
That is to say,
That is,
That means
What I
'm suggesting
'm trying to say
meant to say
should have said
Let me put it another way


Expressing reasons and explanations:

Emphasising cause
The death rate from cancer is increasing
owing to the fact that
people are smoking more.

The fact that
the death rate from cancer is increasing 
is due to
may be due to
people smoking more.

reason for
cause of
the death rate from cancer increasing
is that
could be that
people are smoking more.

An increase in the death rate from cancer
may be
one effect of
one result of
one consequence of
caused by
due to
because of
people smoking more.
results from
arises from
Emphasising effect
people are smoking more,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.

People are smoking more.
Because of this,
For this reason,
As a consequence,
As a result,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.
People are smoking more,
as a result of which
as a consequence of which
with the result that

Owing to
people smoking more,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.

effect of
result of
consequence of
people smoking more
is that
the death rate from cancer is increasing.
is to
increase the death rate from cancer.

People smoking more
results in
leads to
is the cause of
gives rise to
brings about
an increase in the death rate from cancer.

16 Eylül 2013 Pazartesi

Okuma-Konuşma, The Design of Everyday Objects

Suggested Video: 10 Usability Heuristics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWc0Fd2AS3s
Lead in: Either brainstorm about design or put the selected keywords on the board and try to make the students reflect on them
Keywords: create, craftsman, tools, carve, decorate, ornament, available, handy, confusing
Remind the word forms of
function: to function, functionality, functional,
produce: to produce, product, producer, production
consume: to consume, consumption, consumer
use: to use, user, usable, usability

Use photograph of the lemon squeezer on page 168 or the photograph of the chair on page 170 for the unit as a discussion opener. Have students read getting into the topic and getting a first idea about the article questions. Ask several students to share their answers. If you cannot get any answers from the students, get closer to them and ask if they have any “everyday objects” on their table, pocket or inside their bag. Have one student stand up and show his or her object to classmates and encourage the student and/or several different students to answer some of your questions. For example: “Do you think this object is well designed or poorly designed?”, “Is it simple to use?”, “Is it worth buying?”, “Do you have a better alternative of this object? Can you show it to you friends?”, “Did you like its color, shape?”
Note: This reading text is very appropriate for jig saw reading so it’s better if you do not use the words functionality, usability and emotional responsein your warm-up section otherwise students may lose their curiosity while other groups are speaking.

Suggested While-Reading
Divide the classroom into 4-5 groups (depending on the number of students) or you can ask the students to make their own groups.
Par.1, 2, 3____1st group (background information, early designers, functionality)
Par. 4, 5, 6____ 2nd group (usability, characteristics of a well-designed and usable product, main                                              concern of the designers)
Par. 7, 8   ____ 3rd group (emotional response, expressing personal identity)
Par. 9      ____   4th group (discussing the 3 basic principles of design by looking at three watches on page 172

Give them around 10 minutes to read only the paragraphs that belong to their group and also ask them not to read more. Tell them they will paraphrase and report their own paragraphs. You may circulate through the classroom, assisting students with difficult lines or vocabulary. The primary goal is to encourage active interaction within the group so let them discuss their paragraphs freely.
When the time is up, each group starts talking about their paragraphs. It’s better not to interrupt or paraphrase the speaker. You may overlook the students’ grammar and vocabulary mistakes in order to keep the teacher talk at minimum. After each group finishes speaking, ask some questions to the other students who have not read those paragraphs.

Post-Reading Questions:
Par. 2: Who were the craftsmen? Why do you think craftsmen made different things for rich and the poor? How did industrialization change the meaning of fine objects?
Par.3:What’s functionality? Could you give me an example of a beautiful but not a functional product?
Par. 4: Could you give me an example of a high-tech product which is not usable? Tell me a multi-functional product that you have? Are you using all of its functions?
Usability: the quality of being of practical use
Par. 5: What are visual signs? What are the factors that make a product usable?
Par. 6:What’s the main concern of the designers? If you were a mobile phone designer; which functions would you probably include?
Par. 7: Do you have an emotional response to an object? (It can be a ring, pen, key case, t-shirt etc.)
Par. 8: Is there any object that expresses the culture that you belong to, your social group or belief? (It can be rosary, evil eye bead or it can be not using plastic bags to protect the environment)
How do you feel when you use that object?
Par. 9: How would you describe a person who prefers to use the 1st, 2nd or the 3rd watch?
Which one reflects your style? Which watch would you like to be given as a present? Why?

Collocations:hand-made, mass-produced, produced on demand, user-friendly, poorly/well designed


Okuma-Konuşma, The Teenage Brain


Lead in: Brainstorm OR write the selected keywords on the board and try to make the students reflect on them and discover how much familiar they are with these terms.
Keywords: teenager, adolescence, childhood, adulthood, dramatic, hormone, penalty, MRI images, crucial, visual/spatial processing, predict, neuron, lobe/hemisphere

Brainstorm about the differences between teenagers and adults. Suggested answers:
Teenagers                                                                            Adults
Being more emotional                                                      Understanding the emotions of others
Showing poor judgment                                                   Using good judgment
Being more willing to take risks                                      Not conveying their emotions
Experiencing more lack of sleep                                     More likely to be logical
Often misunderstanding the emotions of others

Pre-Reading Questions
a)       When is your earliest class hour? Are you happy with it or would you prefer it to be at a later hour?
b)       What time do students at primary and secondary school wake up to catch their classes? Do you like this system or is it possible to make some changes for them to arrange these class hours?

Getting a first idea about the article
 The book asks the students to focus on the pictures on pages 216,217 and 218. Pair work is suggested to discuss the questions. After they discuss with a partner, you may focus on the pictures as a whole class and direct these suggested questions to them to encourage discussion.
For the cartoon on page 216: -Do you agree with what this man says? (or do you think we should worry about our future or just leave it and stop worrying? )
For the photo on page 217: - Have you taken such a risk when you were a teenager? If your answer is yes, what was the result? Did it result in any bad events?
-          Are you still willing to take risks? What kind of risks would you take?
For the photo on page 218: -How often do you feel the same as the girl in this photo? What are your reasons?

While-Reading Questions:
PAR. 1
a)       What are some of the differences between teenagers and adults?
b)       What are the reasons of these differences?
PAR. 2
a)       Which parts of the brain develop earlier and which parts develop later?
b)       Why don’t teenagers consider the consequences of their actions? (or why aren’t they good at planning? )
PAR. 3
a)       Whose emotional responses are better? Teenagers’ or adults’?
b)       What’s the cause of this difference?
c)       Why do teenagers often misunderstand other people’s behavior?
d)        Did you ever experience such a misunderstanding when you were a teenager?
PAR. 4
a)       Why can’t teenagers use good judgment?
PAR. 5
You may ask these questions before they read par. 5 and make them scan the paragraph and find the answer.
a)       What’s a biological clock?
b)       Why do teenagers need more sleep than adults?
PAR. 6
a)       Do you like the system mentioned in par.6? Can we adapt it in Turkey?

Collocations: to use good/poor judgment, make decisions, take something into account, lack of sleep, raise questions, bring about changes, commit crime, take into account, biological clock, predict consequences, make sense

Okuma-Konuşma, The Growth of Cities

Suggested Videos:
Imagine My City (not in English but with subtitles) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJJy5W9LXLw
Did you know… that Central Park in New York City is a man-made park? Opened in 1857 and completed in 1873, this 340 hectare urban park is notable for its immense fir, western hemlock, cedar, poplar and maple groves.

Lead in: Either brainstorm or Put the selected keywords on the board and try to make the students reflect on them and discover how much familiar they are with these terms.
Keywords: urban /rural growth, suburbs/suburban area, settlement, housing, squatter settlement, unplanned/rapid urbanization, community
Some Sectors of a Modern City: Market Place, Downtown, Uptown, Suburbs, Financial/Commercial/Industrial/Historical/Shopping District, Nightlife District
Remind ss that Paris is an example of the circular city pattern while NY is an example of the grid city pattern. (You may find the visual aids on Appendix…. )

Warm up:
Why do most people prefer moving to cities? What are their main reasons for relocation?
What happens as a result of this moving process? What are the possible results of the growth in cities?
Which cities in Turkey receive migration most? Do you think that living in big cities fulfill their expectations or not?

While-Reading Questions (Suggested Questions)
As it is seen in Par 1, there has been an increase in the number of people living in cities worldwide.
What is the situation in Turkey? Is the number of people living in cities on increase or on decline?
According to Par 2, people have moved to cities for different reasons throughout the history.
Do you know any other reasons apart from the ones in the text? What are the major reasons of Turkish people to change their location?
PAR 3-4-5
In paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 different city models are compared. Think about the city plans/models in Turkey and discuss which pattern they follow.
As it is stated in Par 6, cities offer new opportunities for people. Do you agree with this? What kinds of opportunities are offered in cities in Turkey?

Population growth, urban/rural/world population, developing countries, astounding rates, low-quality housing, live in the suburbs, a series of rings, poor neighborhoods, squatter settlements, growing numbers, business districts, available services, face challenges, provide housing\ services\security

Form different collocations for the words given. Suggested answers are given in brackets.

1-              ……………..­…..  area ( urban/rural/ suburban/ central/ rich/wealthy/poor)
2-              ……………..­…..  growth (economic/technological/population)
3-              ……………..­….. countries ( developing/developed/poor/wealthy/rich/third- world)
4-              ……………..­….. rates (increasing/decreasing/growing/surprising/alarming)
5-              ……………..­….. population (poor/rich/urban/rural/world)
6-              ……………..­….. housing ( high- quality/low-quality/good/poor/available)
7-              ……………..­….. numbers (increasing/decreasing/growing/surprising/alarming)
8-              ……………..­….. districts (poor/wealthy/school/military)
9-              ……………..­….. services ( good/poor/available/existing)

10-          ……………..­….. challenges (face/overcome/handle/deal with/cope with)