20 Eylül 2013 Cuma

Okuma-Konuşma Destek Materyali


Giving Opinions

I think, I feel, I reckon (informal)
I guess (American)
In my view, in my opinion, to my mind, for me (formal)
If you ask me,…..
Apparently, so to speak, more or less, sort of (informal)
Kind of (informal)
Well, really, that is to say, at least, I am afraid, I suppose, or rather, actually, I mean

Giving a strong opinion
“I am absolutely convinced that…….”
“I am sure that…….”
“I strongly believe that…….”
“I have no doubt that………”
“To my way of thinking,…….”

Focusing and Linking
With reference to
Talking / speaking of / about
As regards
As far as………is concerned
As for………….

Agreeing and Disagreeing
I agree
That’s exactly what I think
That’s a good point
That’s right
Yeah, I know
I take your point, but….
I see what you mean, but….
I agree up to a point, but….
I agree to some extent, but…
I disagree
I don’t agree at all
Sorry, but that’s not my opinion
I don’t feel the same way
I wouldn’t say that
I don’t think so
No way!
Oh, come on!

Checking understanding of the question

Do you mean…?
Sorry, I didn’t catch the last word of the question.
Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on .
Let me just make sure - your point is that .
Should I talk about Japan, or the country that I come from?

Pausing for thought

Let me think.
Let me see.
That’s a difficult question.
I’ve never really thought about that before.

Sounding unsure

I don’t remember very well, but…
The first thing that comes to mind is…
I don’t know a lot about this, but I guess…
I’m no expert on this, but I would imagine…

Comparing Photos
The most obvious similarity is that both photos show …
You can see … in both photos.
The … in photo 1 is/are … . Similarly, the … in photo 2 is/are …
The … is the same in both photos.
In the first photo ... but in the second one ...
This picture ... while on the other hand this one ...
In comparison to the first photo, this one ...
The biggest difference between the photos is that photo 1 shows … whereas photo 2 shows …
While photo 1 shows ..., photo 2 on the other hand …
The … is completely different in the two photos.

Classifying / categorising


There are
of X
: Y and Z.
. These are Y and Z.
are Y and Z.

consists of
can be divided into
. These are Y and Z.
: Y and Z.

Y and Z are
of X.

We can classify X
according to
on the basis of
depending on






X is like Y
X and Y are similar
X is similar to Y
X is the same as Y
X resembles Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in that W is the same.
in terms of W.
in W.

Both X and Y cost W.
X is as expensive as W.
X costs the same as Y.
X is the same price as Y.

X has a Y.
Similarly, it has a W.
Likewise, it has a W.
Correspondingly, it has a W.
It has a W, too.
It also has a W.




X differs from Y
X is unlike Y
X and Y differ
X is different from Y
X contrasts with Y
with respect to W.
as regards W.
as far as W is concerned.
regarding W.
in terms of W.
in W.

X costs 1,174, whereas Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, while Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, but Y costs W.
X costs 1,174, in contrast to Y, which costs W.
X is more expensive than Y.
X is not as expensive as Y.
X costs more than Y.

X is expensive to buy.
On the other hand, it is W.
In contrast, it is W.
Conversely, it is W.
However, it is W.

Although X is expensive to buy,
Despite the high price of X,
it is W.









X is ....
X is called ....
X is known as ....
X may be defined as ....
X is a type of Y that/which ....
A type of Y which ... is X.
We call ... ....
We define ... ....


Emphasising a point


I want to stress ....
I want to highlight ....
I'd like to emphasise ....
I'd like to put emphasis on ....
It's important to remember that ....
We should bear in mind that ....
Don't forget that ....
The crucial point is ....
The essential point is ....
The fundamental point is ....
Furthermore, ....
What's more, ....
This supports my argument that, ....
It follows, therefore, that ....
What (in effect) we are saying is ....



Referring to research


If you agree with what the writer says.
If you disagree with what the writer says.
If you do not want to give your opinion about what the writer says.

The work of X indicates that ...
The work of X reveals that ...
The work of X shows that ...
 Turning to X, one finds that ... Reference to X reveals that ...
In a study of Y, X found that...
As X points out, ...
As X has indicated ...
A study by X shows that ...
X has drawn attention to the fact that ...
X argues that ...
X points out that ...
X makes clear that ...

          X claims that ...
          The work of X asserts that ...
          X feels that ...

According to X...
It is the view of X that ...
The opinion of X is that ...
In an article by X, ...
Research by X suggests that ...
X has expressed a similar view.
X reports that ...
X notes that ...
X states that ...
X observes that ...
X concludes that ...
X argues that ...
X found that ...
X discovered that ...






In other words,
Or rather,
That is to say,
To put it another way,
If we put that another way,
I mean
By which I mean
Or you could say
The point I'm making is
That is to say,
That is,
That means
What I
'm suggesting
'm trying to say
meant to say
should have said
Let me put it another way


Expressing reasons and explanations:

Emphasising cause
The death rate from cancer is increasing
owing to the fact that
people are smoking more.

The fact that
the death rate from cancer is increasing 
is due to
may be due to
people smoking more.

reason for
cause of
the death rate from cancer increasing
is that
could be that
people are smoking more.

An increase in the death rate from cancer
may be
one effect of
one result of
one consequence of
caused by
due to
because of
people smoking more.
results from
arises from
Emphasising effect
people are smoking more,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.

People are smoking more.
Because of this,
For this reason,
As a consequence,
As a result,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.
People are smoking more,
as a result of which
as a consequence of which
with the result that

Owing to
people smoking more,
the death rate from cancer is increasing.

effect of
result of
consequence of
people smoking more
is that
the death rate from cancer is increasing.
is to
increase the death rate from cancer.

People smoking more
results in
leads to
is the cause of
gives rise to
brings about
an increase in the death rate from cancer.

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