5 Mart 2015 Perşembe


Stonehenge was built in prehistoric times. It was probably constructed as a place of worship. Many of its stones have been stolen over the years. It is visited by a lot of tourists every year.
We form the passive with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.
 to be +past participle (pp)
We use the passive with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.
The passive forms are:
1.Present simple:     am/is/are+pp
My car is serviced twice a year.
2.Present continuous: am/is/are being+pp
My car is being serviced now.
3.Past simple: was/were+pp
My car was serviced last month.
4.Past continuous: was/were being +pp
My car was being serviced when I went to the garage.
5.Present perfect simple: have/has been+pp
My car has already been serviced by two o’clock.
6.Future simple: will be +pp
(They will service my car.)
My car will be serviced tomorrow.
7.Future perfect simple: will have been+pp
(They will have serviced my car by Monday.)
My car will have been serviced by Monday.
8.Present infinitive. (to)  be+pp
With ‘need to’:
(They need to service my car soon.)
My car needs to be serviced soon.
With ‘have to’:
They have to service my car.
My car has to be serviced.
9.Perfect infinitive: (to) have been+pp
My car should have been serviced last month.
-ing form:       being+pp
I insist on my car being serviced today.
Modals: modal+be+pp
My car must be serviced before the trip.
The passive is used:
a)When the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context.
Mrs. Archer’s ruby ring was stolen from her house last night.(We do not know who stole the ring.)
Rolls Royce cars are made in England. (It is not important to know who makes these cars.)
The cows are milked once a day. (It is obvious that the farmers milk the cows.
b) When the action itself is more important than the person who carries it out, as in the news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, etc.
Two teenagers were seriously injured in a car accident last night.
c) when we want to make statements more polite.
e.g. My new blouse is ruined. (more polite saying, ‘You’ve ruined my new blouse.’)
1 What happens to a car when it is taken for a service? Look at the prompts and make sentences using the present simple passive, as in the example.
1.       The oil/ change
The oil is changed.
2.the brakes/test
The brakes are tested.
3.The filters/replace
The filters are replaced.
4.air /put/in the tyres
The air is put in the tyres.
5.the battery/check
The battery is checked.
6.broken parts/repair
The broken parts are replaced.
2.Mr. Sullivan, who is a film director, is preparing  scene for his new film. Read the orders and respond using the present continuous passive, as in the example.
1. Move that scenery, please.
It’s being moved now, Mr. Sullivan.
2.Put those props in place, please.
They are being put, now, Mr. Sullivan.
3.Check their costumes, please.
They are being checked, now.
4. Turn on the lights, please.
They are being turned on, now.
3. Detective Maguire is talking to a police officer about a burglary which happened early yesterday morning.In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below, as in the example.
1. Have you dusted the house for fingerprints yet?
The house/ dust/for fingerprints yesterday.
The house was dusted for fingerprints yesterday.
2.Have you found any evidence yet?
A piece of material/find/ this morning
A piece of material was found this morning.
3.Have you interviewed the house owners, yet?
They/interview/last night
They were interviewed last night.
4. Have you questioned the neighbors yet?
They/question/this morning
They were questioned this morning.
5.Have you arrested any suspects yet?
Two men /arrest/yesterday evening
Two men were arrested yesterday evening.
6.Have you interrogated the suspects yet?
They/interrogate/last night
They were interrogated last night.
7.Have you recovered the stolen goods yet?
They/ recover/ this morning
They were recovered this morning.
4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.
1. A:Who looks after your garden for you?
B: It is looked after by my brother.
2.A:That’s a beautiful dress. Where did you buy it?
B: Actually it _was made_______(make) for me by my aunt.
3.A:Have you typed that letter yet, Miss Brown?
4.B: It _is being typed _______(type) right now, sir.
5.A:Did you make the coffee when you got to work this morning?
B:No, it _has already been made________(already/make) by the time I got there.
6.A:Are you going to pick up the children today?
B:No, they _are going to be picked up________(pick up) by Roger. I’ve already arranged it.
7.A:Has the new furniture for my bedroom arrived?
B:No, it _hasn’t been delivered_________(not/deliver) yet.
8.A:They are building a new sports center in town.
B:I know. It _is going to be opened_____ (open) by the mayor next month.
To change a sentence from the active into the passive:
·         The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
·         The  active verb remains in the same tense, but changes into a passive form.
·         The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent, and is either introduced with the preposition ‘by’ or omitted.
·         Only transitive verbs (verbs followed by an object) can be changed into the passive.
·         E.g. active: Peter feeds the cows. (transitive verb)   passive: The cows are fed by Peter.
·         But: They leave for work early every day. (The verb ‘leave’ in this sentence is intransitive; that is it is not followed by an object. The sentence cannot be changed into the passive.)

a report.

A report
was written
by Sharon.

We use by+ agent to say who or what carries out the action. We use with instrument/material/ingredient to say what the agent used.
·         e.g. A kite was made by John. It was made with paper, paint and string.
The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc.
·         e.g. active: people eat a lot of junk food nowadays.     Passive: a lot of junk food is eaten nowadays.
Object pronouns( me, you, him, etc.) become subject pronouns (I, you, he, etc.)  in the passive.
·         e.g. active: They rescued me.     Passive: I was rescued.
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive, where possible.
1.Meg asked the policeman for directions.
The policeman was asked directions by Meg.
2.They didn’t come home last night.
It cannot be changed.
3.Their nanny takes them to the park every day.
They are taken to the park by their nanny.
4.I left very early yesterday afternoon.
Cannot be changed
5.Charles is moving house next month.
Charles’ house is being moved into.

6.The letter arrived two days ago.
Cannot be changed
7.Sam took these photographs.
These photographs were taken by Sam.
8.Someone is repairing the garden fence.
The garden fence is being repaired.
9.Do they teach Latin at this school?
Is Latin taught at this school?
11.I don’t like people pointing at me.
I don’t like being pointed at.
12.She hit him on the head with a tennis racket.
He was hit on the head with a tennis racket.
13.Who built the Pyramids?
Who were the pyramids built by?
14.The boss is going to give us a pay rise.
We are going to be given a pay rise by the boss.
15.They won’t have completed the work by the end of the month.
The work won’t have been completed by the end of the month.

The verbs think, believe, say, report, know, expet, consider, understand, etc. Are used in the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions.
Active: people sayhe has lost his job.
Passive: a) It is said (that) he has lost his job. (impersonal construction)
b) He is said to have lost his job.(personal construction)

active: People knowthat she works hard.
Passive: c)It is known (that) she works hard.
d)She is known to work hard.

Active: People thinkhe left the country last night.
Passive: e)It is thought (that) he left the country last night.
f) He is thought to have left the country last night.

Complete the sentences, as in the example.
1.       It is expected that he will win the race tomorrow.
He is expected to win the race tomorrow.
2.       It is said that she speaks seven languages.
She …is said to speak seven languages…………………………
3.       It is believed that the missing jewellery has been found.
The missing jewellery …is believed to have been found…………………….
4.       It is thought that she is a talented pianist.
She …is thought to be a talented pianist…………………………..
5.       It is known that she is hiding somewhere in the city.
She…is known to be hiding somewhere in the city………………………………
6.       It is expected that the Turkish team will break the world record.
The Turkish team …is expected to break the world record…………………………

7.       It is reported that the thieves have escaped from prison.
The thieves …are reported to have escaped from prison……………………………..

HOMEWORK (The homework will be checked in class next week)
Underline the correct answer:

Fire 1) swept/was swept through a furniture warehouse yesterday afternoon. Most of the stock inside 2) was damaged /damaged, but shocked workers 3) have been managed/managed to save a small amount of it. The police 4) are being investigated/are investigatingthe cause of the fire, but it 5) is thought/thinks that it was an accident. The shop manager 6) is being looked/is looking for another warehouse where stock can 7) keep/be kept.A lot of stock 8) has been lost/ has lost, but the shop 9) will open/will be opened tomorrow as usual’, said the manager. ’I’m just glad no one 10) hurt/was hurt’.

Rewrite the following passage in the passive.

Someone broke into the National Gallery late last night. The thieves had broken the alarm system before they climbed through a window. They stole some priceless works of art. They used a getaway car to escape. The police have questioned some suspects. They have not caught the thieves yet.

National Gallery was broken into late last night. The alarm system had been broken by the thieves before they climbed through a window. Some priceless works of art were stolen by them. A getaway car was used to escape. Some suspects have been questioned by the police. The thieves haven’t been caught, yet.

A few days ago, somebody stole Keith Dunn’s motorbike. Keith had left his motorbike outside his house. Keith reported the theft to the police. The police told him they would try to find his motorbike. This morning, the police called Keith and asked him to go to the police station. They found his motorbike. The thieves had painted it and then sold it to someone else. The new owner had parked the motorbike outside the police station. The police arrested the thieves.
A few days ago Keith Dunn’s motorbike was stolen. His motorbike had been left outside his house by Keith. The theft was reported to the police by Keith. He was told by the police that they would try to find his motorbike. This morning Keith was called by the police and was asked to go to the police station. His motorbike was found by them. It had been painted by then thieves and then sold to someone else. The motorbike had been parked outside the police station by the new owner. The thieves were arrested by the police.

Rewrite the following using the words in parenthesis. Here are some examples:
1.       Last Monday, we chose the new spokesman.
(was)   The new spokesman was chosen last Monday.
2.       Richard the Lionheart led the Crusaders in the 12th century.
(by) The crusaders were led by Richard the Lionheart.

3.       They will fire you if you go on behaving like this.
(get)You will get fired if you go on behaving like this.

4.        Sheila doesn’t like people interrupting her when she is working.
(being) Sheila doesn’t like being interrupted when she is working.

5.       People say that a change is as good as a rest.
(be)……A change is said to be as good as a rest.

6.       Sylvia is organizing the wedding reception.
(by) The wedding reception is being organized by Sylvia.

7.       Tom needs someone to help him with his homework.
(be) Tom needsto be helped with his homework………………….

8.       Someone sent us an anonymous letter.
(were)  We ……were sent an anonymous letter……………

9.       My father broke my mother’s glasses when he sat on them.
(got) …My mother’s glassesgot broken…

10.   Erica covered the sofa with an old sheet.
(was) The sofa …………………………………………………………………………………….

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