14 Nisan 2015 Salı


 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT- target vocabulary
Detection (n) Detect (v)
The act or process of discovering, finding, or noticing something.
      By flying low, the plane avoided detectionby the enemy radar.
      The test is used to detectthe presence of alcohol in the blood.
Retribution (n):severe punishment for sth very serious
      Victims are demanding retributionfor the terrorist attacks. They want to see the terrorists strictly punished.
incapacitation (n):
 incapacitating (adj):
      Making you unable to work, move, or function in the usual way
      An incapacitatingillness kept him bound to a wheelchair for years.
Rehabilitate(v), rehabilitation (n):  to help someone live a healthy, useful or active life again after they had been seriously ill or in prison.
      Steps should be taken to restore peace, rehabilitate the affected persons and to create confidence and sense of security among them.
Incarceration (n), Incarcerate (v): (usually used as (be) incarcerated)(formal): to put or keep someone in prison. synonym: imprison.
      They were each sentenced to six months' incarceration. (=imprisonment)
      They were both incarceratedfor armed robbery.
Sentence (n): a punishment that a judge gives to someone who is guilty of a crime.
      She was given a three-year prison sentence.
      He has just begun a life sentencefor murder.
      Stiff / light sentence:
      Police officers are demanding stiffer sentences for offenders.
Predictable (adj):
      Something that happens in a way that you know about in advance, because it always or very often happens like that.
      The outcome of the meeting is not always predictable. We cannot know in advance which decisions will be taken.
Inmate(s) (n) a person who is kept in a prison or mental hospital.
      In prison you learn about other inmatesand their crimes.
To be accustomed to: to be used to sth or something happening
      I’m not accustomed to being interrupted.
      My eyes are accustomed to dim lighting.
Justice (n): (1) the process or result of using laws to fairly judge and punish crimes and criminals
(2) Someone who is brought to justice is arrested and punished for a crime in a court of law.
      (In American English, justice is a judge e.g. A Supreme Court Justice)
      They received justice in court.
      If a criminal is brought to justice, he or she is punished for a crime by being arrested and tried in a court of law.
Former (adj): Used to say what someone or something was in the past; existing in the past.
former congressman / friends, etc.
      The guide showed us the old home of the former President Theodore Roosevelt.
      They hope to restore the old theater to its former glory. (=to make it as good as it was in the past)
Counseling (US), counselling (UK) (n): advice and support given by a counsellor to someone with problems, usually after talking to them.
      The former criminal had been undergoing counselling after his years in prison.
cut s.o./sth. off  or  cut off s.o./sth.(phrasal verb):
to cause (someone or something) to be separate or alone — often + from
      She cut herself offfrom her family.
      The prisoner was cut off from society for a long period.
Probation (n): a system that allows some criminals not to go to prison; or to leave prison if they behave well and see a probation officer regularly.
      The judge sentenced Jennings to 3 years probation. He was lucky not to be arrested.
Supervision (n): the action or process of watching and directing what someone does or how something is done.
      He was placed under the supervision of a probation officer.
      She let them work without supervision.
      She's responsible for the supervisionof a large staff.
Abolish (v): to officially end a law, system, etc. Especially one that has existed for a long time.
      Slavery was abolished in the US in the 19th century.

      Clamor (US), clamour (UK) (n): a very loud noise made by a large group of people or animals. He shouted over the rising clamorof voices.
      A clamor outside woke them in the night.
Couple with (phrasal verb): to join or combine (something) with (something else)
— usually used as (be) coupled with
      The exhibit couples poems withpaintings.
      Lack of rain coupled with high temperatures caused the crops to fail.
dreary (adj): causing unhappiness or sad feelings: not warm, cheerful, etc.
drearily (adv):
      It was just a dreary winter’s day with no sunshine.
      The family struggled through drearyeconomic times.
      He was dressed drearily in grey.
Confined (adj): a small space or area; restricted.
      It isn’t easy to live in such a confinedplace as the prison.

Detection, detective, detector
Incapacitation, incapability, incapacity
Incapable (of)
Prediction, predictor
Predictable, predictive
Justice, judge
Counsel, counsellor
Abolition, abolitionist

*Choose the right word to complete the sentences.
Justice, detect, predictable, sentence, incarcerated, counseling, rehabilitation, former, abolishing, inmates, probation, retribution, clamour, incapacitating, drearily, supervision, coupled with, confined, accustomed to, cut off
1. Many people might think that computers will always be _________since all they ever do is follow a program.
2. The court dealt with crimes involving a capital ________ or offenses for which the death penalty could be imposed. 
3. The killers of the witness must be brought to_______. They will be tried in court and then receive a punishment.
4. The public can help the police to ________crime. They can provide evidence or they can tell how it happened if they witnessed the crime.
5. A selection of items published in _______ years was put out in book form.
6. A special ________ unit had been set up in the hospital for the stroke patients.
7. He spent 10 years ________ in prison.
8. When you visit a therapist to work out your relationship issues, this is an example of________.
9. An example of retribution is when someone gets the death penalty for committing murder.
10. One by one the inmates made their offers as she passed.
11. When a judge sentences you to six months of being observed and having to comply with rules instead of going to jail after you are caught shoplifting, this is an example of probation.
12. He suggested that abolishing the current system would discourage firms from advancing credit.
13. People walked ________ through the wet streets with dull Sunday faces, longing for all to be over.
14. In short, the world's international system of finance is heading for a new era - and one with little __________ or control.
15. He came by last night and attacked my servants, mortally wounding one and ________ the other and threatened me with my life if I didn't hand the gems over.
16. The noise had reached a ________, and the smoke was making their eyes water.
17.In Spain we gave up our usual schedule and 
became _______ eating dinner at 10 p.m. 
18.She gets uncomfortable in ______ spaces. She feels better in spacious, big areas.
19.She feels very ________ living in the country. She misses the excitement of the city and she feels she has noone to talk to.
20. Lack of study _________ carelessness caused me to fail the exam.

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