3 Nisan 2015 Cuma


A.    Fill in the blanks with the correct word. There are two extras.

1.The fear of being caught acts as a deterrent to breaking the law. Many people decide not to commit a crime when they think of all the unpleasant things that could happen to them if they did.
2.She directed the film and collaborated with Goldman on the script. I think they really worked well and produced an awesome film.
3.He recognized Mr. Hunter as an old acquaintance from his years in banking. He knew him just a little and they were by no means close friends.
4.This is a travel company that specializes in expeditions to  areas of the      world that are hard to access. For instance last year they organized expeditions to the 180th meridian in Siberia, Antarctica,  the three islands of Fiji and the  Attu Island in Alaska which is the westernmost point on land.
5. If the fine is not paid within ten days, we will have to prosecute those who didn’t pay it. Because obviously they are committing a crime.
6.Turkey’s universities expanded at an unprecedented rate at the end of the 20th century. They not only grew in the number of students they had but they also moved into new areas.
7.Cook the spinach over a moderate heat. If you cook it too hot, then you can burn it, because it is tender and it cooks easily.
8. There is plenty of room for advancement within the company. If you want to climb up the career ladder, this company is the right place to start.
9. The federal government will take punitive action against the company that polluted the river. They are going to punish the company either by a fine or imprisonment for the pollution of water and for endangering life in the river.
10. Community punishment is used for less serious offendersof law. For more serious ones, imprisonment is used.
11. I study in the library as there are too many distractionsat home, such as my baby brother constantly crying and my elder sisters fighting all the time. They make such a noise that I can’t concentrate.
12. All organizations have a corporate identity which is an identity owned or shared by all the members of that organization.
13. Four minor candidates of the competition were eliminatedin the first round. They were defeated by the other candidates so that they could not take further part.
14. Only a minority of young people get a chance to benefit from the scholarships offered by the private institutions and the government. The majority, unfortunately, can not.
15. Proper publicity has enhanced his reputation so now he’s very well-known and appreciated by a lot of people.
The Youngsters Behind You Tube: Steve Chen and Chad Hurley
By Evan Carmichael
            “Everybody aspires to be a star,” says Steve Chen, a Taiwanese immigrant who came to the United States with his family in hopes of a better life. Chen’s aspirations became a reality when he, along with Pennsylvania-born Chad Hurley, created what is today the World’s largest online video website. YouTube has now become a global sensation, propelling both Hurley and Chen to the top of Business 2.0’s list of “The 50 People Who Matter Now”. YouTube was also named TIME magazine’s 2006 “Invention of the Year”. When Hurley and Chen decided to sell their company, they did so for a price tag of $1.65 billion.
            Chen was studying computer science in the University of Illinois and Chad Meredith Hurley was pursuing a bachelor’s degree in fine art in the Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Both got part time jobs at a small e-commerce start-up called PayPal where they met and soon became close friends. They began to spend their time discussing several different business ideas. When eBay purchased PayPal for $1.54 billion, the two received large bonuses for their role in growing the small start-up. They decided to use their money to create their own venture. With Chen’s engineering skills and Hurley’s creativity, they thought forming a company together was a plausible idea.
            In January 2005, Hurley and Chen attended a friend’s dinner party in San Francisco. They had taken a few digital videos of the event and wanted to share them with each other the next day, but could not find a good means to do so. The files were too big to e-mail, and posting them online would take hours. With that, Hurley and Chen had their first idea for a sustainable business. Using the money they had received from the PayPal buyout, Chen and Hurley decided to create YouTube, to make uploading and sharing videos online as easy as anyone could want. It was the birth of a revolution.
            “We’re not in a hurry”, Hurley once said.”We’re interested in building our community.We’re trying to improve the experience for people on our site.”They might not have been in a hurry, but their site sure grew in one. Today, YouTube has almost half of the online video market, and it is still growing. How did a university dropout and a boy who loved to draw become the industry leaders they are considered now?
            User-Oriented:Hurley and Chen knew from personal experience how difficult it was to upload and share videos online.And that was why they decided to create YouTube.They wanted to create a website that others like themselves would find useful. By prioritizing its users’ needs and being as easy and interactive as possible, YouTube was able to find a loyal audience that numbers in the millions.
            Unique:When you visit YouTube.com, you are most likely searching for something that you cannot find anywhere else.From long-lost ‘80s music videos, to political speeches, to the current events of today, you are almost guaranteed to find it on YouTube. And that is why people keep coming back for more.
            Well-timed:Some have suggested that YouTube’s success was due to a perfect storm of environmental factors.More to the point, it was Hurley and Chen’s ability to not only notice, but also take advantage of that storm that pushed them to the top.In short, they created a company that was right for the times.
            YouTube put the right technology out there to meet a need, but it did so much more than that. It created a simple and unique way for people to connect with each other.It has become the fastest growing video-sharing site of all time, all the while outliving the critics’ claims that it’s just another teenage fad that will soon die down.
B. Answer the following questions according to the text.
1.(Identifying The Author’s Purpose)   The author probably wrote the article in order to ________.
a. explain how to create a start up
b.tell the story of the success of YouTube
c.share his opinion about Steve Chen and Chad Hurley
d.describe how people can use the internet to share videos.
2. (Scanning For Details)   Chen and Hurley ______.
a. spent over $1 billion building YouTube
b.bought YouTube for over $1 billion
c.sold YouTube for over $1.54 billion
d. sold YouTube for over $1.65 billion (paragraph 1 last line)
3.(Scanning For Details)   Steve Chen is ______.
a.an artist
b.an engineer
c.a university dropout
d.a teacher
4 (Scanning For Details)   Chad Hurley is _______.
a.       An investor
b.      An engineer
c.       An artist
d.      A programmer
5. (Scanning For Details)   Chen and Hurley got the idea for creating YouTube because they _______.
a. enjoyed working together at PayPal
b.had received bonuses from the PayPal buyout
c.needed to get new jobs after they quit working at PayPal
d.wanted to share videos they took at a dinner party
6. (Scanning For Details)      According to the article, two reasons that YouTube is successful are that  _______.
a. It’s easy to use, and it came at the right time
b. You can find almost anything on it, and the company donates money to charity. (doesn’t say it donates money to charity)
c. people like seeing themselves and their friends online, and it’s the only videosharing website on the internet (it’s not the only video-sharing website on the internet.It has half of the online video market. Middle of 4th paragraph)
d. It holds promotions and posting videos is free. (the text doesn’t say either of these.)
7. (Pronoun reference)   What does “its”in line 57 refer to?
a. YouTube               b. Website                  c. Shared videos                     d. user
8. (Guessing Meaning From Context)        What does “plausible” in line 36 mean?
a. cheerful                   b. successful              c. likely                       d.unreasonable
9. (Main Idea)  Which  of the following sentences express a main idea in the reading? Choose 5.
a. Steve Chen was born in Taiwan, and Chad Hurley was born in Pennsylvania.
b. Chen and Hurley started talking about business ideas when they were working at PayPal together
c. Steve Chen and Chad Hurley created the world’s largest online video website.
d.PayPal was purchased for $1.54 billion, and Chen and Hurley received large bonuses.
e. Chen and Hurley’s bonuses from the PayPal buyout enabled them to start a business.
f. In 2005, Hurley and Chen went to a dinner party.
g. The idea for creating YouTube was born when Chen and Hurley realized they couldn’t easily upload videos online.
h. YouTube is an industry leader for several reasons, including the fact that it’s user-oriented and was well-timed.
i. YouTube was successful not only because it meets a need, but also because it is a way for people to connect.
j. The critics thought YouTube was a teenage fad that wouldn’t last.
C. Rewrite the following sentences.
1.     I’ve never been to Argentina. I have relatives there.
Despite having relatives there, I’ve never been to Argentina.
2.     We worked very hard. We didn’t win the game. (although)
Although we worked very hard, we didn’t win the game.
3.     Lorena seems to be quite clever. She often gets low marks.
(in spite of)
In spite of being very clever, Lorena often gets low marks.
4.     The thief doesn’t want to get arrested. As a result, he doesn’t steal.
(deter) The fear of …………………………………………………
The fear of getting arrested deters the thief from stealing.
5.     I have to pay too much for fuel costs. Therefore, I don’t drive my car.
(stop) The thought of ………………
The thought of having to pay too much for fuel costs stops me from driving my car.
6.     I’m leaving now. I want to catch the bus.
(so as to) …………………………………………………
I’m leaving now so as to catch the bus.
7.     She wanted to be with her children. She left work early.
(in order to)…………………………………………………………
She left work early in order to be at home with the children.
8.     In spite of the dangers of bungee jumping, he keeps doing it.
(even though)………………………………………………..
Even though bungee jumping is very dangerous, he keeps doing it.
9.     It is said that she bought a new Range Rover jeep.
(have) She………………………………………………………………………….
She is said to have bought a new Range Rover jeep.
10.People think that he has already left the country. (thought)
(thought) It…………………………………………………….
(thought) He……………………………………………….
It is thought that he has already left the country. He is thought to have already left the country.
11.   The executive committee approved of an entirely new policy for dealing with academic suspension.
An entirely new policy for dealing with academic suspension was approved of by the executive committee.
12.  A subcommittee had written the policy on student behavior.
The policy on student behavior  had been written by a subcommittee.
D. 1.Answer the question according to the text : “Deviance and Crime”.
What is deviant behaviour? Explain by giving  examples.
It is behaviour that is considered unacceptable or outside the norms for a society.There are degrees of deviance and not every member of the society agree on what may be deviant behaviour or it may change from culture to culture.Some examples include murder, rape robbery…….
2. How has the internet affected our attention and concentration? Explain your answer according to the text “Learning and thinking with New Media”.
According to a view, before the internet people read and thought more deeply, with longer periods of concentration.Today with continous and fast connection to the internet, people can get answers right away. They don’t read long articles anymore. And they  concentrate and use their attention less. Internet is believed to be changing how we learn and use our memory and attention.We don’t feel the need to remember everything since we can google them anytime. We don’t need to memorize things as much as we used to.

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